Analysis of the Buddhist Theory of Kamma - Cūḷa-kamma-vibhaṅga sutta


Buddhist Theory of Kamma
Dhamma Talk on the 
Cūḷa-kamma-vibhaṅga Sutta [subha sutta]
Date: September 7, 2019
Time: 7:30 PM
Venue: Sri Ratana International Buddhist Center
2780 W. Lincoln Ave, Anaheim, CA 92801
The Shorter Analysis of Actions (Deeds)

(Majjhima Nikaya 135)
Pali & English Translation 
289 Evaṃ me sutaṃ 
Thus/so I have heard. 
– ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane, anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme 
At one time the Buddha was staying near Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery.
Atha kho subho māṇavo todeyyaputto yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi. 
Then the brahmin student Subha, Todeyya’s son, approached the Buddha, and exchanged greetings with him. 
Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho subho māṇavo todeyyaputto bhagavantaṃ etadavoca –
When the greetings and polite conversation were over, he sat down to one side and said to the Buddha:
 ‘‘Ko nu kho, bho gotama, hetu ko paccayo yena manussānaṃyeva sataṃ manussabhūtānaṃ dissanti hīnappaṇītatā? 
  • Dissanti hi, bho gotama, manussā appāyukā, dissanti dīghāyukā; For people are seen to be short-lived and long-lived
  • dissanti bavhābādhā[1], dissanti appābādhā sickly and healthy
  • dissanti dubbaṇṇā, dissanti vaṇṇavanto ugly and beautiful
  • dissanti appesakkhā, dissanti mahesakkhā uninfluential (insignificant) and influential (illustrious)
  • dissanti appabhogā, dissanti mahābhogā poor and rich
  • dissanti nīcakulīnā, dissanti uccākulīnā low born and high born
  • dissanti duppaññā, dissanti paññavanto[2]. stupid and wise. 
Ko nu kho, bho gotama, hetu ko paccayo yena manussānaṃyeva sataṃ manussabhūtānaṃ dissanti hīnappaṇītatā’’ti? 
“Master Gotama, what is the cause and condition why human beings are seen to be inferior and superior? 
  • ‘‘Kammassakā, māṇava, sattā “Young man, sentient beings are the owners of their actions/deeds
  • kammadāyādā and heir to their actions/deeds.
  • kammayonī they originate from their actions/deeds are their womb,
  • kammabandhū are bound to their actions/their relative, [3]
  • kammappaṭisaraṇā. have their actions as their refuge/and their refuge. 
  • Kammaṃ satte vibhajati yadidaṃ – hīnappaṇītatāyāti. It is the action that distinguishes beings as inferior and superior. /it is deeds that divide beings into inferior and superior.”

Na kho ahaṃ imassa bhoto gotamassa saṃkhittena bhāsitassa vitthārena atthaṃ avibhattassa vitthārena atthaṃ ājānāmi. 
“I don’t understand the meaning of what Master Gotama has said in brief, without explaining the details. 
Sādhu me bhavaṃ gotamo tathā dhammaṃ desetu yathā ahaṃ imassa bhoto gotamassa saṃkhittena bhāsitassa vitthārena atthaṃ avibhattassa vitthārena atthaṃ ājāneyya’’nti. 
Master Gotama, please teach me this matter in detail so I can understand the meaning.”
290 ‘‘Tena hi, māṇava, suṇāhi, sādhukaṃ manasi karohi; bhāsissāmī’’ti. 
“Well then, student, listen and pay close attention, I will speak.”
‘‘Evaṃ, bho’’ti kho subho māṇavo todeyyaputto bhagavato paccassosi. 
“Yes, sir,” replied Subha. 
Bhagavā etadavoca –
The Buddha said this:
‘‘Idha, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā pāṇātipātī hoti  
“Take some woman or man who kills living creatures.
luddo 
They’re murderous/violent,
lohitapāṇi 
bloody-handed,
hatapahate niviṭṭho 
given to blows and violence (a hardened killer,)
adayāpanno pāṇabhūtesu 
merciless to living beings[4].
So tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena[5] 
Because of performing and undertaking such actions/deeds,
kāyassa bhedā 
on the dissolution of the body (when their body breaks up,)
paraṃ maraṇā 
after death,
apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. 
He reappears in a state of deprivation, (they’re reborn in a place of loss), in an unhappy destination (a bad place), in perdition (the underworld), even in hell.
No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati, 
but if on the dissolution of the body/ when their body breaks up, after death, he does not reappear in a state of deprivation, (they’re not reborn in a place of loss), in an unhappy destination (a bad place), in perdition (the underworld), even in hell,
sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati appāyuko hoti. 
But instead comes back to the human state, then whereever he is reborn he is short-lived. (but return to the human realm, then wherever they’re reborn they’re short-lived.)
Appāyukasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ – pāṇātipātī hoti luddo lohitapāṇi hatapahate niviṭṭho adayāpanno pāṇabhūtesu. 
This is the way, young man, that leads to short life, namely, one kills living beings and is murderous, bloody-handed, given to blows and violence, merciless to living beings. (For killing living creatures is the path leading to a short lifespan.)
‘‘Idha pana, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā pāṇātipātaṃ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti 
But here, young man, some man or woman, abandoning the killing of living beings, (But take some woman or man who gives up killing living creatures.)
nihitadaṇḍo nihitasattho 
abstains from killing living beings, with rod and weapon laid aside, (They renounce the rod and the sword., lajjī dayāpanno gentle and kindly, (They’re scrupulous and kind,)
sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharati.  
he abides compassionate to all living beings. (living full of compassion for all living beings.) 
So tena kammena 
Because of performing and undertaking such actions/deeds,
evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā 
on the dissolution of the body (when their body breaks up,)
paraṃ maraṇā
after death,
sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. 
He reappears in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. (they’re reborn in a good place, a heavenly realm.)
No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati 
but if on the dissolution of the body/ when their body breaks up, after death, he reappears in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world, (If they’re not reborn in a heavenly realm,)
sace manussattaṃ āgacchati 
but instead he comes back to the human state (return to the human realm,)
yattha yattha paccājāyati dīghāyuko hoti. 
then wherever they’re reborn he is (they’re long-lived.)
Dīghāyukasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ pāṇātipātaṃ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti – 
This is the way, young man, that leads to long life, namely, abandoning the killing of living beings, one abstains from killing living beings; (or not killing living creatures is the path leading to a long lifespan.)
nihitadaṇḍo nihitasattho 
with rod and weapon laid aside, (They renounce the rod and the sword), lajjī dayāpanno gentle and kindly, (they’re scrupulous and kind,)
sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharati. 
one abides compassionate to all living beings. (living full of compassion for all living beings.)
291 ‘‘Idha, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā sattānaṃ viheṭhakajātiko hoti, 
Here, young man, some man or woman is given to injuring beings (take some woman or man who habitually hurts living creatures)
with the hand, with a clod, with a stick, or with a knife (with a fist, stone, rod, or sword.)
So tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena[6] 
Because of performing and undertaking such actions/deeds,

āyassa bhedā 
on the dissolution of the body (when their body breaks up,)
araṃ maraṇā 
after death,
apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. 
He reappears in a state of deprivation, (they’re reborn in a place of loss), in an unhappy destination (a bad place), in perdition (the underworld), even in hell.
No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati, 
but if on the dissolution of the body (when their body breaks up), after death, he does not reappear in a state of deprivation, (they’re not reborn in a place of loss), in an unhappy destination (a bad place), in perdition (the underworld), even in hell,
sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati bavhābādho hoti. 
But instead comes back to the human state, then wherever he is reborn he is sickly. Or if return to the human realm, then wherever they’re reborn they’re sickly. 
Bavhābādhasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ sattānaṃ viheṭhakajātiko hoti – 
This is the way, young man, that leads to sickliness, namely, one is given to injuring beings (For habitually hurting living creatures is the path leading to sickliness.)
pāṇinā vā leḍḍunā vā daṇḍena vā satthena vā. with the hand, with a clod, with a stick, or with a knife (with a fist, stone, rod, or sword.)
‘‘Idha pana, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā sattānaṃ aviheṭhakajātiko hoti pāṇinā vā leḍḍunā vā daṇḍena vā satthena vā. 
Here, young man, some man or woman is given to injuring beings with the hand, with a clod, with a stick, or with a knife (But take some woman or man who does not habitually hurt living creatures with a fist, stone, rod, or sword.)
So tena kammena 
Because of performing and undertaking such actions/deeds,
evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā 
on the dissolution of the body/ when their body breaks up,
paraṃ maraṇā 
after death,
sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. 
He reappears in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world. (they’re reborn in a good place, a heavenly realm.)
No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati 
but if on the dissolution of the body/ when their body breaks up, after death, he reappears in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world, (If they’re not reborn in a heavenly realm,)
sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati appābādho hoti. 
If instead he comes back to the human state then wherever he reborn he is healthy. (or if they return to the human realm, they’re healthy.)
Appābādhasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ –
This is the way, young man, that leads to health, namely, one is not given to injuring beings (For not habitually hurting living creatures is the path leading to health.)
pāṇinā vā leḍḍunā vā daṇḍena vā satthena vā. 
with the hand, with a clod, with a stick, or with a knife (with a fist, stone, rod, or sword.)
292 ‘‘Idha, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā kodhano hoti upāyāsabahulo. 
Here, young man, some man or woman is of an angry and irritable character; (take some woman or man who is irritable and bad-tempered.)
Appampi vutto samāno abhisajjati kuppati byāpajjati 
Even when criticized a little, he is offended, becomes angry, hostile, and resentful, (when lightly criticized they lose their temper, becoming annoyed, hostile, and hard-hearted,)
patiṭṭhīyati kopañca dosañca appaccayañca pātukaroti. 
and displays anger, hate, and bitterness. (and displaying annoyance, hate, and bitterness.)
So tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati, sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati dubbaṇṇo hoti. Dubbaṇṇasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ – kodhano hoti upāyāsabahulo; appampi vutto samāno abhisajjati kuppati byāpajjati patiṭṭhīyati kopañca dosañca appaccayañca pātukaroti.
Because of performing and undertaking such actions/deeds, on the dissolution of the body/ when their body breaks up, after death, He reappears in a state of deprivation, (they’re reborn in a place of loss), in an unhappy destination (a bad place), in perdition (the underworld), even in hell. but if on the dissolution of the body/ when their body breaks up, after death, he does not reappear in a state of deprivation, (they’re not reborn in a place of loss), in an unhappy destination (a bad place), in perdition (the underworld), even in hell, But instead comes back to the human state, then wherever he is reborn he is ugly. Or if return to the human realm, then wherever they’re reborn they’re ugly. This is the way, young man, that leads to ugliness, namely, one is not given to injuring beings (For not habitually hurting living creatures is the path leading to ugliness.)
‘‘Idha pana, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā akkodhano hoti anupāyāsabahulo; bahumpi vutto samāno nābhisajjati na kuppati na byāpajjati na patiṭṭhīyati na kopañca dosañca appaccayañca pātukaroti. So tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati, sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati pāsādiko hoti. Pāsādikasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ – akkodhano hoti anupāyāsabahulo; bahumpi vutto samāno nābhisajjati na kuppati na byāpajjati na patiṭṭhīyati na kopañca dosañca appaccayañca pātukaroti.
Here, young man, some man or woman is not of an angry and irritable character; even when criticized a lot, he is not offended, he does not become angry, hostile, and resentful, and does not display anger, hate, and bitterness. Because of performing and undertaking such actions/deeds, on the dissolution of the body/ when their body breaks up, after death, he reappears in a happy state, in the heavenly world. but if on the dissolution of the body/ when their body breaks up, after death, he does not reappear in a happy state, in the heavenly world, but instead comes back to the human state, then wherever he is reborn he is beautiful. This is the way, young man, that leads to being beautiful, namely, one is not of an angry and irritable character even when criticized a lot, he is not offended, he does not become angry, hostile, and resentful, and does not display anger, hate, and bitterness.
(But take some woman or man who isn’t irritable and bad-tempered. Even when heavily criticized, they don’t lose their temper, become annoyed, hostile, and hard-hearted, or display annoyance, hate, and bitterness. Because of undertaking such deeds, after death they’re reborn in a heavenly realm … or if they return to the human realm, they’re lovely …)
293 ‘‘Idha, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā issāmanako hoti; paralābhasakkāragarukāramānanavandanapūjanāsu issati upadussati issaṃ bandhati. So tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati, sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati appesakkho hoti. Appesakkhasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ – issāmanako hoti; paralābhasakkāragarukāramānanavandanapūjanāsu issati upadussati issaṃ bandhati.
Here, young man, some man or woman is envious, one who envies, resents, and begrudges the gains, honor, respect, reverence, salutations, and veneration received by others. Because of performing and undertaking such action… he reappears in a state of deprivation… but if instead he comes back to the human state, then wherever he is reborn he is uninfluential. This is the way, young man, that leads to being uninfluential, namely, one is envious… towards the gains, honor, respect, reverence, salutations, and veneration received by others.
(Take some woman or man who is jealous. They envy, resent, and begrudge the possessions, honor, respect, reverence, homage, and veneration given to others. Because of undertaking such deeds, after death they’re reborn in a place of loss … or if they return to the human realm, they’re insignificant …)
‘‘Idha pana, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā anissāmanako hoti; paralābhasakkāragarukāramānanavandanapūjanāsu na issati na upadussati na issaṃ bandhati. So tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati, sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati mahesakkho hoti. Mahesakkhasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ – anissāmanako hoti; paralābhasakkāragarukāramānanavandanapūjanāsu na issati na upadussati na issaṃ bandhati.
Here, young man, some man or woman is not envious, one who does not envy,  resent, and begrudge the gains, honor, respect, reverence, salutations, and veneration received by others. Because of performing and undertaking such action… he reappears in a happy destination … but if instead he comes back to the human state, then wherever he is reborn he is influential. This is the way, young man, that leads to being influential, namely, one is envious… towards the gains, honor, respect, reverence, salutations, and veneration received by others.
(But take some woman or man who is not jealous … Because of undertaking such deeds, after death they’re reborn in a heavenly realm … or if they return to the human realm, they’re illustrious …)
294. ‘‘Idha, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā na dātā hoti samaṇassa vā brāhmaṇassa vā annaṃ pānaṃ vatthaṃ yānaṃ mālāgandhavilepanaṃ seyyāvasathapadīpeyyaṃ. So tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati, sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati appabhogo hoti. Appabhogasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ – na dātā hoti samaṇassa vā brāhmaṇassa vā annaṃ pānaṃ vatthaṃ yānaṃ mālāgandhavilepanaṃ seyyāvasathapadīpeyyaṃ.
Here, young man, some man or woman does not give food, drink, clothing, carriages, garlands, scents, unguents, beds, dwelling, and lamps to recluses or brahmins. Because of performing and undertaking such action… he reappears in a state of deprivation… but if instead he comes back to the human state, then wherever he is reborn he is poor. This is the way, young man, that leads to poverty, namely, one does not give food, drink, clothing, carriages, garlands, scents, unguents, beds, dwelling, and lamps to recluses or brahmins.
(Take some woman or man who doesn’t give to ascetics or brahmins such things as food, drink, clothing, vehicles; garlands, perfumes, and makeup; and bed, house, and lighting. Because of undertaking such deeds, after death they’re reborn in a place of loss … or if they return to the human realm, they’re poor …)
‘‘Idha pana, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā dātā hoti samaṇassa vā brāhmaṇassa vā annaṃ pānaṃ vatthaṃ yānaṃ mālāgandhavilepanaṃ seyyāvasathapadīpeyyaṃ. So tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati, sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati mahābhogo hoti. Mahābhogasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ – dātā hoti samaṇassa vā brāhmaṇassa vā annaṃ pānaṃ vatthaṃ yānaṃ mālāgandhavilepanaṃ seyyāvasathapadīpeyyaṃ.
Here, young man, some man or woman gives food, drink, clothing, carriages, garlands, scents, unguents, beds, dwelling, and lamps to recluses or brahmins. Because of performing and undertaking such action… he reappears in a happy destination… but if instead he comes back to the human state, then wherever he is reborn he is wealthy. This is the way, young man, that leads to wealth, namely, one gives food, drink, clothing, carriages, garlands, scents, unguents, beds, dwelling, and lamps to recluses or brahmins.
(But take some woman or man who does give to ascetics or brahmins … Because of undertaking such deeds, after death they’re reborn in a heavenly realm … or if they return to the human realm, they’re rich …)
295. ‘‘Idha, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā thaddho hoti atimānī – abhivādetabbaṃ na abhivādeti, paccuṭṭhātabbaṃ na paccuṭṭheti, āsanārahassa na āsanaṃ deti, maggārahassa na maggaṃ deti, sakkātabbaṃ na sakkaroti, garukātabbaṃ na garukaroti, mānetabbaṃ na māneti, pūjetabbaṃ na pūjeti. So tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati, sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati nīcakulīno hoti. Nīcakulīnasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ – thaddho hoti atimānī; abhivādetabbaṃ na abhivādeti, paccuṭṭhātabbaṃ na paccuṭṭheti, āsanārahassa na āsanaṃ deti, maggārahassa na maggaṃ deti, sakkātabbaṃ na sakkaroti, garukātabbaṃ na garukaroti, mānetabbaṃ na māneti, pūjetabbaṃ na pūjeti.
Here, young man, some man or woman is obstinate and arrogant; he does not pay homage to one who should receive homage, does not rise up for one in whose presence he should rise up, does not offer a seat to one who deserves a seat, does not make way for one for whom he should make way, and does not honor, respect , revere, and venerate one who should be honored, respected, revered, and venerated. Because of performing and undertaking such action… he reappears in a state of deprivation… but if instead he comes back to the human state, then wherever he is reborn he is low-born. This is the way, young man, that leads to low birth, namely, one is obstinate and arrogant; he does not pay homage to one who should receive homage, does not rise up for one in whose presence he should rise up, does not offer a seat to one who deserves a seat, does not make way for one for whom he should make way, and does not honor, respect , revere, and venerate one who should be honored, respected, revered, and venerated.
(Take some woman or man who is obstinate and vain. They don’t bow to those they should bow to. They don’t rise up for them, offer them a seat, make way for them, or honor, respect, esteem, or venerate those who are worthy of such. Because of undertaking such deeds, after death they’re reborn in a place of loss … or if they return to the human realm, they’re reborn in a low class family …)
‘‘Idha pana, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā atthaddho hoti anatimānī; abhivādetabbaṃ abhivādeti, paccuṭṭhātabbaṃ paccuṭṭheti, āsanārahassa āsanaṃ deti, maggārahassa maggaṃ deti, sakkātabbaṃ sakkaroti, garukātabbaṃ garukaroti, mānetabbaṃ māneti, pūjetabbaṃ pūjeti. So tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati, sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati uccākulīno hoti. Uccākulīnasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ – atthaddho hoti anatimānī; abhivādetabbaṃ abhivādeti, paccuṭṭhātabbaṃ paccuṭṭheti, āsanārahassa āsanaṃ deti, maggārahassa maggaṃ deti, sakkātabbaṃ sakkaroti, garukātabbaṃ garukaroti, mānetabbaṃ māneti, pūjetabbaṃ pūjeti.
Here, young man, some man or woman is not obstinate and arrogant; he pays homage to one who should receive homage, rises up for one in whose presence he should rise up, offers a seat to one who deserves a seat, makes way for one for whom he should make way, and honors, respects, reveres, and venerates one who should be honored, respected, revered, and venerated. Because of performing and undertaking such action… he reappears in a happy destination… but if instead he comes back to the human state, then wherever he is reborn he is high-born. This is the way, young man, that leads to high birth, namely, one is not obstinate and arrogant; he pays homage to one who should receive homage, rises up for one in whose presence he should rise up, offers a seat to one who deserves a seat, makes way for one for whom he should make way, and honors, respects, reveres, and venerates one who should be honored, respected, revered, and venerated.
(But take some woman or man who is not obstinate and vain … Because of undertaking such deeds, after death they’re reborn in a heavenly realm … or if they return to the human realm, they’re reborn in an eminent family …)
296. ‘‘Idha, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā samaṇaṃ vā brāhmaṇaṃ vā upasaṅkamitvā na paripucchitā hoti – ‘kiṃ, bhante, kusalaṃ, kiṃ akusalaṃ; kiṃ sāvajjaṃ, kiṃ anavajjaṃ; kiṃ sevitabbaṃ, kiṃ na sevitabbaṃ; kiṃ me karīyamānaṃ dīgharattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāya hoti, kiṃ vā pana me karīyamānaṃ dīgharattaṃ hitāya sukhāya hotī’ti? So tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati, sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati duppañño hoti. Duppaññasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ – samaṇaṃ vā brāhmaṇaṃ vā upasaṅkamitvā na paripucchitā hoti – ‘kiṃ, bhante, kusalaṃ, kiṃ akusalaṃ; kiṃ sāvajjaṃ, kiṃ anavajjaṃ; kiṃ sevitabbaṃ, kiṃ na sevitabbaṃ; kiṃ me karīyamānaṃ dīgharattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāya hoti, kiṃ vā pana me karīyamānaṃ dīgharattaṃ hitāya sukhāya hotī’’’ti?
Here, young man, some man or woman does not visit a recluse or a brahmin and ask: ‘Venerable sir, what is wholesome? What is unwholesome? What is blameable? What is blameless? What should be cultivated? What should not be cultivated? What kind of action will lead to my harm and suffering for a long time? What kind of action will lead to my welfare and happiness for a long time? Because of performing and undertaking such action… he reappears in a state of deprivation… but if instead he comes back to the human state, then wherever he is reborn he is stupid. This is the way, young man, that leads to stupidity, namely, one does not visit a recluse or brahmin and ask such questions.
(Take some woman or man who doesn’t approach an ascetic or brahmin to ask: ‘Sir, what is skillful and what is unskillful? What is blameworthy and what is blameless? What should be cultivated and what should not be cultivated? What kind of action will lead to my lasting harm and suffering? Or what kind of action will lead to my lasting welfare and happiness?’ Because of undertaking such deeds, after death they’re reborn in a place of loss … or if they return to the human realm, they’re witless …)
‘‘Idha pana, māṇava, ekacco itthī vā puriso vā samaṇaṃ vā brāhmaṇaṃ vā upasaṅkamitvā paripucchitā hoti – ‘kiṃ, bhante, kusalaṃ, kiṃ akusalaṃ; kiṃ sāvajjaṃ, kiṃ anavajjaṃ; kiṃ sevitabbaṃ, kiṃ na sevitabbaṃ; kiṃ me karīyamānaṃ dīgharattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāya hoti, kiṃ vā pana me karīyamānaṃ dīgharattaṃ hitāya sukhāya hotī’ti? So tena kammena evaṃ samattena evaṃ samādinnena kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. No ce kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati, sace manussattaṃ āgacchati yattha yattha paccājāyati mahāpañño hoti. Mahāpaññasaṃvattanikā esā, māṇava, paṭipadā yadidaṃ – samaṇaṃ vā brāhmaṇaṃ vā upasaṅkamitvā paripucchitā hoti – ‘kiṃ, bhante, kusalaṃ, kiṃ akusalaṃ; kiṃ sāvajjaṃ, kiṃ anavajjaṃ; kiṃ sevitabbaṃ, kiṃ na sevitabbaṃ; kiṃ me karīyamānaṃ dīgharattaṃ ahitāya dukkhāya hoti, kiṃ vā pana me karīyamānaṃ dīgharattaṃ hitāya sukhāya hotī’’’ti?
Here, young man, some man or woman visits a recluse or a brahmin and asks: ‘Venerable sir, what is wholesome? What is unwholesome? What is blameable? What is blameless? What should be cultivated? What should not be cultivated? What kind of action will lead to my harm and suffering for a long time? What kind of action will lead to my welfare and happiness for a long time? Because of performing and undertaking such action… he reappears in a happy destination… but if instead he comes back to the human state, then wherever he is reborn he is wise. This is the way, young man, that leads to wisdom, namely, one visits a recluse or brahmin and asks such questions.
(But take some woman or man who does approach an ascetic or brahmin to ask: ‘Sir, what is skillful and what is unskillful? What is blameworthy and what is blameless? What should be cultivated and what should not be cultivated? What kind of action will lead to my lasting harm and suffering? Or what kind of action will lead to my lasting welfare and happiness?’ Because of undertaking such deeds, when their body breaks up, after death, they’re reborn in a good place, a heavenly realm. If they’re not reborn in a heavenly realm, but return to the human realm, then wherever they’re reborn they’re very wise. For asking questions of ascetics or brahmins is the path leading to wisdom.)
297. ‘‘Iti kho, māṇava, appāyukasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā appāyukattaṃ upaneti, dīghāyukasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā dīghāyukattaṃ upaneti; bavhābādhasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā bavhābādhattaṃ upaneti, appābādhasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā appābādhattaṃ upaneti; dubbaṇṇasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā dubbaṇṇattaṃ upaneti, pāsādikasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā pāsādikattaṃ upaneti; appesakkhasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā appesakkhattaṃ upaneti, mahesakkhasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā mahesakkhattaṃ upaneti; appabhogasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā appabhogattaṃ upaneti, mahābhogasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā mahābhogattaṃ upaneti; nīcakulīnasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā nīcakulīnattaṃ upaneti, uccākulīnasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā uccākulīnattaṃ upaneti; duppaññasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā duppaññattaṃ upaneti, mahāpaññasaṃvattanikā paṭipadā mahāpaññattaṃ upaneti.
Thus, young man, the way that leads to short life makes people short-lived, the way that leads to long life makes people long-lived; the way that leads to sickliness makes people sickly, the way that leads to health makes people healthy; the way  that leads to ugliness makes people ugly, the way that leads to beauty makes people beautiful; the way that leads to being uninfluential makes people uninfluential, the way that leads to being influential makes people influential; the way that leads to poverty makes people poor, the way that leads to wealth makes people wealthy; the way that leads to low birth makes people low-born, the way that leads to high birth makes people high-born; the way that leads to stupidity makes people stupid, the way that leads to wisdom makes people wise.
(So it is the way people live that makes them how they are, whether short-lived or long lived, sickly or healthy, ugly or lovely, insignificant or illustrious, poor or rich, in a low class or eminent family, or witless or wise.)
Kammassakā, māṇava, sattā kammadāyādā kammayonī kammabandhū kammappaṭisaraṇā. Kammaṃ satte vibhajati yadidaṃ – hīnappaṇītatāyā’’ti.
Beings are owners of their own actions, young man, heirs of their actions; they originate from their actions, are bound to their actions, have their actions as their refuge. It is action that distinguishes beings as inferior and superior.
(Sentient beings are the owners of their deeds and heir to their deeds. Deeds are their womb, their relative, and their refuge. It is deeds that divide beings into inferior and superior.”)
Evaṃ vutte, subho māṇavo todeyyaputto bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘abhikkantaṃ, bho gotama, abhikkantaṃ, bho gotama! Seyyathāpi, bho gotama, nikkujjitaṃ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṃ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṃ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṃ dhāreyya – ‘cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī’ti; evamevaṃ bhotā gotamena anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṃ bhavantaṃ gotamaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Upāsakaṃ maṃ bhavaṃ gotamo dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṃ saraṇaṃ gata’’nti.
When this was said, the brahmin young man Subha, Todeyya’s son, said to the Blessed One: “Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overturned, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.”
(When he had spoken, Subha said to him, “Excellent, Master Gotama! Excellent! As if he were righting the overturned, or revealing the hidden, or pointing out the path to the lost, or lighting a lamp in the dark so people with good eyes can see what’s there, Master Gotama has made the Teaching clear in many ways. I go for refuge to Master Gotama, to the teaching, and to the mendicant Saṅgha. From this day forth, may Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone for refuge for life.”)
Cūḷakammavibhaṅgasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ
Here concludes the Cūḷakammavibhaṅga sutta
 References:
Ñāṇamoli, and Bodhi, trans. 2009. The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha : A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya. Fourth. Teachings of the Buddha. Boston: Wisdom Publications in association with the Barre Center for Buddhist Studies.

Recommended Readings:



[1] [bahvābādhā (syā. kaṃ. ka.)]
[2] [paññāvanto (sī. pī.)]
[3] [kammayoni kammabandhu (sī.)]
[4] [sabbapāṇabhūtesu (sī. ka.)]
[5] [samādiṇṇena (pī. ka.)]
[6] [samādiṇṇena (pī. ka.)]

2 comments:

  1. Sadhu Sadhu!
    Excellent!Excellent.No words in this whole world can be used to express how impeccable the sutta is.

    ReplyDelete

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